In October 1736, Jonathan Swift, dean of St Patrick’s Cathedral in Dublin, and the foremost satirist of his age, printed an attack on English porter, which was manufactured, he said, of “the worst Malt, which is sent from all components of the Country for that Use, and consequently nothing at all but Gin exceeds it for Badness.” The scent of London porter, he stated, was “sufficient for any Creature previously mentioned a Swine,” and he slammed Irish publicans for providing English beers, “Liquors inferior to these made in Ireland, but esteemed mainly because they are Foreign.”
You will not have browse about this in advance of, mainly because Swift wrote his denunciation of English porter under the pseudonym of Geoffery Jinglestaff, in a small-lived Irish newspaper known as the Dublin Every day Advertiser, and a lot more than two centuries of Swiftian scholarship has unsuccessful to match up Jinglestaff with the creator of Gulliver’s Travels. This is stunning, due to the fact an English journal, Wye’s Letter, repeating significant chunks of Jinglestaff’s attack on English porter a pair of months immediately after it appeared, quickly (bad pun meant) outed the writer as “a certain witty Dean”.
Can we be confident that Geoffery Jinglestaff was Swift? Given that Swift generally wrote pseudonymously, and two of his acknowledged pseudonyms ended up “Isaac Bickerstaff” and “Simon Wagstaff”, the latter identify made use of for his satire Well mannered Conversations (additional totally, A Complete Assortment of Genteel and Ingenious Conversation According to the Most Polite Method and Technique), revealed in 1738, I assume we can. In addition, Jinglestaff’s columns appeared in the Daily Advertiser below the heading “The Scribler”: Swift was a member of the Scriblerus Club, a team of writers that involved Alexander Pope, and John Gay, creator of The Beggar’s Opera.
Sadly, we do not have, it appears, the unique of Jinglestaff’s/Swift’s polemic on porter: the edition of the Dublin Everyday Advertiser in which it apparently appeared, dated Tuesday Oct 12 1736, is a single of quite a few copies of the newspaper now missing immediately after 285 yrs. We only know of its existence for the reason that areas have been reprinted in the London-centered Wye’s Letter of Saturday Oct 23 1736, which reprint was by itself reprinted in the Derby Mercury of Thursday October 28 and the Caledonian Mercury of the identical working day. (If you go searching for the Dublin Every day Advertiser, by the way, be warned that the only internet site seemingly to have any copies, newspaperarchive.com, has screwed up the metadata and claims it was printed in 1836/7, not 1736/7.) Wye’s Letter itself is unusually obscure: there does not seem to be any repository on the web for it, and its existence currently appears to be minimal to mentions in scanned copies of various other 18th century newspapers, for which it appears to be to have been a kind of Georgian Push Association or Reuters, supplying them with news and other titbits from the capital.
A pair of months just after his initially assault on English porter, Jinglestaff/Swift, who was writing twice-weekly for the Daily Advertiser, Tuesdays and Saturdays, returned to the theme. He claimed that he had been told by a person with “a incredibly serious Face” that “some of our best Ale-Homes ended up about to occur into Articles with Humphry [sic] Parsons, Esq, Alderman and Brewer of the Town of London, to vend no other liquor but his Intire-Butt [ie, porter] for the time period of A person and Twenty Decades.” Humphrey Parsons, proprietor of the Purple Lion brewery at St Katharine’s, just east of the Tower of London, was very well-regarded as 1 of the leading brewers of porter in the English money.
Swift’s assert was presumably all over again intended to stir up the brewers of Dublin into a counter-assault on their English rivals and close the assault that London-brewed porter was earning on the Irish drink market place. London porter, Swift stated, offered in Dublin for four pence a quart, “which Quart desires exactly half a pint of London evaluate,” whilst in London a (London) quart marketed for 3d retail. The English brewers, he reported, offered the porter wholesale to Irish stores at 1½d for each (London) quart, which, which include the difference in the dimensions of the two quarts, meant Dublin publicans “get 3d or far more very clear Earnings.”
The Dublin Daily Advertiser, the initial everyday newspaper in Dublin, was begun by a male known as James Hamilton, in partnership with a bookseller and printer named Ebenezer Rider, in October 1736, and remained in company for only two or 3 yrs. (Just one resource statements that the last known version was dated September 29 1739). It promised to reach “Inns, Taverns and Espresso-houses throughout the Full Kingdom [of Ireland], and the chief Ale-houses in the Town of Dublin.” Which of a number of possible James Hamiltons was at the rear of the paper is not acknowledged. It has been claimed that he “appears” to be the James Hamilton of Rock-Hamilton, in close proximity to Newry, in County Down. That James Hamilton’s aunt, Jane Hamilton, neé Leslie, of Castle Leslie, in Monaghan, and her brothers Robert and Henry, ended up superior buddies of Swift, which could be the hyperlink concerning Geoffery Jinglestaff and the Each day Advertiser.
Jinglestaff’s columns in the Day-to-day Advertiser appear to have finished in February 1737, after only 4 months. Swift was now 69, and progressively unwell. The previous month the newspaper experienced carried an odd ad supplying prizes of £12 and £8 – really worth most likely £2,000 and £1,300 respectively now – for “the two finest poems on the Reverend Patriot of Eire, J. Swift, DD,” with “the Authors … allow’d to use feign’d Names of what Kind they make sure you.” All over again, the situation of the paper revealing the winners seems to be amid the missing.
Regardless of Swift’s attacks, English porter ongoing to movement into Eire by the shipload. In January 1739, Robert Patten at the Bull’s Head in Fishamble Avenue, Dublin, a person of the city’s foremost taverns, announced that he had “just Imported one more decision Quantity of genuine London Porter,” and had crafted a warehouse in the rear of his household “for stated Porter by itself,” where “Gentlemen may possibly have the Pleasure to perspective it neat in the English casks, with no Adulteration or Combination of any other Malt Liquor.” Eleven months on, in November 1739, William Kelly at the Lord Carteret’s Head in Castle Street, Dublin advertised a “choice good parcel of the ideal London Porter, brewed on Goal for him.” A limited whilst later on, in April 1740, Patrick Kelly at the Two Green Posts in Meath Road, Dublin, was declaring that he sold “right stout London Butt Beer, which has been in this Kingdom these 6 months such as is offered at John Bryan’s at the Cock in Previous Street, London, which was a person of the most mentioned Properties in London for Porter.”
Nearby brewers appear to be to have responded to the level of competition from English porter brewers by building their own versions, at minimum in accordance to newspaper reports. The Dublin Journal boasted in its situation of June 10 1740 that “It is universally allowed that the Porter or Beer, brewed in this Town, drastically excels that, in each and every Respect, which is imported from London.” The adhering to 7 days the Journal insisted all over again that the porter made in Dublin was “greatly excellent to that imported from London, which is sold for four Pence a Quart, and that of our possess building for only a few Pence, altho’ it exceeds the English, in Strength, Color and Taste.” The newspaper then listed 9 hostelries wherever Dublin porter was sold: Paul Guimmett at the King’s Head in Mutton Lane John Willcocks at the Ram in Weavers Sq. Patrick Geoughehan (sic) at the Alderman Walker’s Head on the Higher Coombe John Hardin at the Bear in Bride Street John Walker at the Three Sugar Loaves and Plume of Feathers in Castle Road William Comerford at the Parrot and Two Sugar Loaves in Dame Street James Flanagan at the Ferry Boat “at the Ship-building” Patrick White at the Rose in Rose Alley, Cole Quay and Robert Pyke at the Bear in Francis Street.
Regrettably, the newspaper did not identify the brewer or brewers of this Dublin porter. Nor did its praise feel to make any impression on buying behavior, considering that the imports of black beer from England ongoing to pour in. Six months later on the Dublin News Letter claimed: “By Letters from London we are assured, that there is transported for this Port 700 Buts [sic] of Porter, which is 2100 Barrels,” including with a tone of nervousness that “it is hoped the Importation of this Liquor will be stopp’d,” and yet again assuring viewers that “several of our Brewers [have] at this time a Liquor equivalent in flavor and Goodness to the most effective London Porter.”
In simple fact it would be yet another 3 a long time just before Dublin brewers eventually cracked the key of brewing porter as superior as that made by the top London companies, as tens of thousands of barrels of English black beer flowed into Ireland just about every yr, and it was 15 or so a long time immediately after that before imports of English porter began to fall. Sooner or later, of training course, the tide reversed, and a century immediately after Swift’s assault, Irish porter was pouring into London. Probably his shade smiled.